Probiotic interventions to optimize the infant and child microbiota

Yvan Vandenplas, Koen Huysentruyt

Abstract


The optimal healthy microbiota during early life still needs further evaluation. Pre- and probiotics are commonly used as supplementation in infant formula.

Prebiotic oligosaccharides stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria aiming to mimic the gastrointestinal microbiota of breastfed infants. In general, results with prebiotics in therapeutic indications are disappointing.

Studies suggest that probiotic supplementation may be beneficial in prevention and management of disease such as e.g., reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, prevention and treatment of acute gastroenteritis in infants, etc. Although many studies show promising beneficial effects, the long-term health benefits and eventual risks of probiotic supplementation during early life are not clear.

It is likely that ongoing research will result in the use of specific probiotic organisms and/or prebiotic oligosaccharides during the first 1,000 days of life, with the goal to develop a healthy microbiota from conception over birth into the first two years of life with a lowered risk of infections and inflammatory events.


Keywords


gastrointestinal microbiota, infant feeding, prebiotic, probiotic

References


Odamaki T, Kato K, Sugahara H, Hashikura N, Takahashi S, Xiao JZ, et al. Age-related changes in gut microbiota composition from newborn to centenarian: a cross-sectional study. BMC Microbiol 2016;16:90. [Google Scholar]

Collado MC, Rautava S, Aakko J, Isolauri E, Salminen S. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid. Sci Rep 2016;6:23129. [Google Scholar]

Heida FH, Zoonen, A . G. van , Hulscher JB, Bj TK, Wessels R, Kooi EM, et al. A necrotizing enterocolitis-associated gut microbiota is present in the meconium: results of a prospective study. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:863-70. [Google Scholar]

Reid G, Kumar H, Khan AI, Rautava S, Tobin J, Salminen S. The case in favour of probiotics before, during and after pregnancy: insights from the first 1,500 days. Benef Microbes 2016;7:353-62. [Google Scholar]

Rutten NB, Rijkers GT, Meijssen CB, Crijns CE, Oudshoorn JH. K. van der , et al. Intestinal microbiota composition after antibiotic treatment in early life: the INCA study. BMC Pediatr 2015;15:204. [Google Scholar]

Hamilton-Miller JM, Shah S, Smith CT. Probiotic" remedies are not what they seem. BMJ 1996;312:55-6. [Google Scholar]

Vanhee LM, Goem F, Nelis HJ, Coenye T. Quality control of fifteen probiotic products containing Saccharomyces boulardii. J Appl Microbiol 2010;109:1745-52. [Google Scholar]

Huys G, Botteldoorn N, Delvigne F. De , Heyndrickx M, Pot B, et al. Microbial characterization of probiotics--advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC. Mol Nutr Food Res 2013;57:1479-504. [Google Scholar]

Taipale T, Pienihkkinen K, Isolauri E, Jokela JT, Sderling EM. Bifido animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in reducing the risk of infections in infancy. Br J Nutr 2011;105:409-16. [Google Scholar]

Santagati M, Scillato M, Muscaridola N, Metoldo V. La , Stefani S. Colonization, safety, and tolerability study of the Streptococcus salivarius 24SMBc nasal spray for its application in upper respiratory tract infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;34:2075-80. [Google Scholar]

Olson JK, Rager TM, Navarro JB, Mashburn-Warren L, Goodman SD, Besner GE. Harvesting the benefits of biofilms: A novel probiotic delivery system for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Journal of pediatric surgery 2016;51(6):936-41. [Google Scholar]

Dotterud CK, Avershina E, Sekelja M, Simpson MR, Rudi K, Storr O, et al. Does maternal perinatal probiotic supplementation alter the intestinal microbiota of mother and child. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015;61:200-7. [Google Scholar]

Panya M, Lulitanond V, Rattanachaikunsopon P, Srivoramas T, Chaiwong T. Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of Novel Probiotic Strains Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed Infants. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand= Chotmaihet thangphaet 2016;99. [Google Scholar]

Uusitalo U, Liu X, Yang J, Aronsson CA, Hummel S, Butterworth M, et al. Association of Early Exposure of Probiotics and Islet Autoimmunity in the TEDDY Study. JAMA Pediatr 2016;170:20-8. [Google Scholar]

Grandy G Medina M, , Soria R, Tern CG, Araya M . Probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in Bolivian children. BMC Infect Dis 2010;10:253. [Google Scholar]

Chapman CM, Gibson GR, Rowland I. In vitro evaluation of single- and multi-strain probiotics: Inter-species inhibition between probiotic strains, and inhibition of pathogens. Anaerobe 2012;18:405-13. [Google Scholar]

Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, Mykknen H, Vesikari T. Shornikova AV. Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;16:1103-7. [Google Scholar]

Zhang Y, Li L, Guo C, Mu D, Feng B, Zuo X, et al. Effects of probiotic type, dose and treatment duration on irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by Rome III criteria: a meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol 2016;16:62. [Google Scholar]

Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, Larsen CN, Mller PL, Pedersen P, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2002;21(5):411-6. [Google Scholar]

Steenhout PG, Rochat F, Hager C. The effect of Bifido lactis on the growth of infants: a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Nutr Metab 2009;55:334-40. [Google Scholar]

Zbinden A, Zbinden R, Berger C, Arlettaz R. Case series of Bifidobacterium longum bacteremia in three preterm infants on probiotic therapy. Neonatology 2015;107:56-9. [Google Scholar]

West CE. Probiotics for allergy prevention. Benef Microbes 2016;7:171-9. [Google Scholar]

Taipale TJ, Pienihkkinen K, Jokela JT, Sderling EM. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in reducing the risk of infections in early childhood. Pediatr Res 2016;79:65-9. [Google Scholar]

Chen AC, Chung MY, Chang JH, Lin HC. Pathogenesis implication for necrotizing enterocolitis prevention in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58:7-11. [Google Scholar]

Costeloe K, Hardy P, Juszczak E, Wilks M, Millar MR. P.I.S.C. (Probiotics) . Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 in very preterm infants: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet 2016;387:649-60. [Google Scholar]

Olson JK, Rager TM, Navarro JB, Mashburn-Warren L, Goodman SD, Besner GE. Harvesting the benefits of biofilms: A novel probiotic delivery system for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Journal of pediatric surgery 2016;51(6):936-41. [Google Scholar]

Akar M, Eras Z, Oncel MY, Arayici S, Guzoglu N, Canpolat FE, et al. Impact of oral probiotics on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2017;30(4):411-5. [Google Scholar]

Petersen SM, Greisen G, Krogfelt KA. Nasogastric feeding tubes from a neonatal department yield high concentrations of potentially pathogenic bacteria [mdash] even 1 d after insertion. Pediatric research 2016;80(3):395-400. [Google Scholar]

Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;12. [Google Scholar]

Prtty A, Lehtonen L, Kalliomki M, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG therapy and microbiological programming in infantile colic: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatr Res 2015;78:470-5. [Google Scholar]

Kianifar H, Ahanchian H, Grover Z, Jafari S, Noorbakhsh Z, Khakshour A, et al. Synbiotic in the management of infantile colic: a randomised controlled trial. J Paediatr Child Health 2014;50:801-5. [Google Scholar]

T1 H, Matsuyama M, David M, Hill RJ. Infant colic - What works: a systematic review of interventions for breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016;62:668-86. [Google Scholar]

Garofoli F, Civardi E, Indrio F, Mazzucchelli I, Angelini M, Tinelli C, et al. The early administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 controls regurgitation episodes in full-term breastfed infants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2014;65:646-8. [Google Scholar]

Taylor AL, Dunstan JA, Prescott SL. Probiotic supplementation for the first 6 months of life fails to reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis and increases the risk of allergen sensitization in high-risk children: a randomized controlled trial. J All Clin Immunol 2007;119:184-91. [Google Scholar]

Rather IA, Bajpai VK, Kumar S, Lim J, Paek WK, Park YH. Probiotics and atopic dermatitis: an overview. Front Microbiol 2016;7:507. [Google Scholar]

Panduru M, Panduru NM, S?l?v?stru CM, Tiplica GS. Probiotics and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015;29:232-42. [Google Scholar]

Simpson MR, Dotterud CK, Storr O, Johnsen R, ien T. Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatol 2015;15:13. [Google Scholar]

Fiocchi A, Pawankar R, Cuello-Garcia C, Ahn K, Al-Hammadi S, Agarwal A, et al. World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Probiotics. World Allergy Organ J 2015;8:4. [Google Scholar]

Salvini FJ. Riva E, Salvatici E, Boehm G, Jelinek J, Banderali G, Giovannini M. A specific prebiotic mixture added to starting infant formula has long-lasting bifidogenic effects. Nutr 2011;141:1335-9. [Google Scholar]

Veereman-Wauters G, Staelens S. Van de , Plaskie K, Wesling F, Roger LC, et al. Physiological and bifidogenic effects of prebiotic supplements in infant formulae. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011;52:763-71. [Google Scholar]

Bocquet A, Lachambre E, Kempf C, Beck L. Effect of infant and follow-on formulas containing B lactis and galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides on infection in healthy term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013;57:180-7. [Google Scholar]

Chang YS, Trivedi MK, Jha A, Lin YF, Dimaano L, Garca-Romero MT. Synbiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Pediatr 2016;170:236-42. [Google Scholar]




DOI: https://doi.org/10.25220/WNJ.V01i2.0005

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Yvan Vandenplas, Koen Huysentruyt

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats