Breastfeeding pattern and its' association with nutritional status and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level in 3-to 6-month-old infants

Eleonora Mitaning Christy, Sri Sukmaniah, Rini Sekartini

Abstract


Introduction: Breastfeeding pattern is a form of mother's behavior in giving breast milk to her baby. Breast milk supports the growth and development of the baby. The most common immunoglobulin in breast milk is secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). SIgA levels can be evaluated, one of the ways, from saliva samples examination. The purpose of the research were to determine the breastfeeding pattern and its association with nutritional status and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level in 3-to 6-month-old infants.

Methods: The research with cross sectional design was conducted in Kiara Social Pediatric-Growth and Developmental Polyclinic, Cipto Mangunkusomo Hospital Jakarta. A total of 54 healthy infants subjects aged 36 months old were taken using consecutive sampling method. Descriptive analysis, Chi Square, and Mann-Whitney test were used. P-values <0.05 were considered significant.

Results: Our results showed that subjects with normal nutritional status were 85.2%. The median of subjects salivary sIgA level was 56.2 (2.5536.4) g/ml. There was no significant differences regarding to subjects nutritional status between good breastfeeding pattern group and poor breastfeeding pattern group (P> 0.145), and no significant differences regarding to salivary sIgA level between good breastfeeding pattern group and poor breastfeeding pattern group (P> 0.34).

Conclusion: Despite its un-significant results, this study showed that normal nutritional status tended to be more prevalent in group with good breastfeeding pattern than in poor breastfeeding pattern. Re-encouragement, socialization, and education to the breastfeeding mothers is needed to improve the good breastfeeding pattern.


Keywords


Breast milk, breastfeeding mother, breastfeeding pattern, nutritional status, salivary sIgA

References


Organization WH. Indicators for assessing infants and young child feeding practices. Geneva: WHO; 2010. Available from: http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/IYCF_Indicators_part_III_country_profiles.pdf [Google Scholar]

Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS): Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI. 2013

SUSENAS. Indonesiasurvei sosial ekonomi nasional triwulan 3 (Modul). 2014. Downloaded from: http://microdata.bps.go.id (accessed May 20th, 2016).

Pusat Data dan Informasi kementerian Kesehatan RI (InfoDATIN). Situasi dan analisis ASI ekslusif. 2014.

World Health Organization. Global nutrition targets 2025: breastfeeding policy brief 5. Geneva: WHO; 2010. Downloaded from: www.who.int/nutrition/topics/ nutrition_globaltargets2025/en/ (accessed July 16th, 2017).

Jafarzadeh A, Hassanshahi GH. The Comparison of salivary IgA and IgE levels in children with breast- and formula- feeding during infancy period. Den Res J 2007;4:11-17. [Google Scholar]

Ananta Y, Gandaputra E, Waiman E, Pratiwi IGAN, Marzuki NS, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia. Paediatr Indones 2016;56:24-31. [Google Scholar]

Weemaes C, Klasen I, Gertz J, Beldhuis-Valkis M, Olafsson O. Development of immunoglobulin a in infancy and childhood. Scand J Immunol 2003;58:642-8. [Google Scholar]

Sjarif DR, Nasar SS, Devaera Y, Tanjung C. Rekomendasi Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia: Asuhan Nutrisi Pediatrik (Pediatric Nutrition Care). Jakarta: Badan Penerbit IDAI-UKK Nutrisi dan Penyakit Metabolik, 2011

United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF . Programming Guide: Infant and young children feeding. Geneva: WHO; 2012. [Google Scholar]

Davanzo R, Monasta L, Ronfani L, Brovedani P, Demarini S. Breastfeeding in neonatal intensive care unit study group. J Hum Lact 2013;29(3):374-80. [Google Scholar]

Mandic Z, Piricki AP, Kenjeric D, Hanicar B, Tanasic I. Breast vs. bottle: differences in the growth of Croatian infants. Matern Child Nutr 2011;7:389-96. [Google Scholar]

Kent JC, Mitoulas LR, Cregan MD, Ramsay DT, Doherty DA, Hartmann PE. Volume and frequency of breastfeeding and fat content of breast milk throughout the day. Pediatrics 2006;117(3):387. [Google Scholar]

Rhein G, Atkinson M, McCraty R. The physiological and phsycological of compassion and anger. Journal of Advancement in Medicine 1995;8(2):87-105. [Google Scholar]

Herbert TB, Cohen S. Stress and immunity in human: a meta-analytic review. Psychosom Med 1993;55:364-79. [Google Scholar]

Rood, Y.U. Van , Bogaards M, Goulmy E, Houwelingen, H.C. van . The effects of stress and relaxation on the in vitro immune response in man: a meta-analytic study. J Behav Med 1993;16:163-81. [Google Scholar]

Brandtzaeg P. Mucosal immunity: integration between mother and the breast-fed infant. Vaccine 2003;21(24):3382-8. [Google Scholar]

Kleinman PE, Walker WA. The enteromammary immune system: an important new concept in breast milk host defense. Dig Dis Sci 1997;24:876-8. [Google Scholar]

Rodriguez NA, Meier P, Groer M, Zeller JM, Engstrom JL, et al. A pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of oropharyngeal administration of own mothers colostrum to extremely low birth weight infants. Advance in Neonatal Care 2010;10(4):206-12. [Google Scholar]

Lee J, Kim HS, Jung YH, Choi KY, Shin SH, et al. Oropharyngeal colostrum adminitsration in extremely premature infants: an RCT. Pediatrics 2015;135(2):357-65. [Google Scholar]




DOI: https://doi.org/10.25220/WNJ.V01i2.0009

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Eleonora Mitaning Christy, Sri Sukmaniah, Rini Sekartini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.