Association Between Breakfast to Dysmenorrhea Degree on Students SMAN 2 in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Husnah Husnah


Introduction: Dysmenorrhea is a common problem in women and can affect the quality of life of personal health and decreased status of quality of life. The risk of dysmenorrhea is age, age of menarche, nutritional status, marital status, family history, physical activity and food intake. Breakfast is an energy supplier that is needed in the first hour of activities. The purpose of this study was to know the relationship of breakfast with the degree of dysmenorrhea in high school students of SMAN 2 Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The SMAN 2 school is located in the coastal area where most of the students come from families with the job of fishermen and traders. People in that area often do the activity early with the habit of having breakfast after completing their activities. Students from SMAN 2 generally have breakfast during rest time after studying, this habit can cause problems such as dizziness, weakness, nausea, bloating, decreased concentration which will affect the health of the students.

Methods: The design of the study was analytic observational with cross sectional approach. Sampling from 6th to 13th of January 2018 taken by nonprobability sampling with stratified random sampling method, obtained sample of 132 students. Inclusion criteria are all students of SMAN 2 Class X, XI, XII, have a history of dysmenorrhea since menarche, not suffering from chronic disease (DM, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Ovarian Cyst, myoma) secondary dysmenorrhea, not taking NSAID medicines, unmarried, and not routine doing physical activity. Measurement of dysmenorrhea with Visual Analog scale (VAS) and breakfast using Frequency Food Questionnaire (FFQ) with interview technique.

Results: The student with age of menarche most at the age of 10 year that is 43 student (32,6%), normal nutrition status 71 student (53,8%). Student who always eat breakfast is 24 students (18,2%), Student who eat breakfast sometimes is 36 students (27,2%) and student who rarely eat breakfast  is 41 students (31,1%). The degree of dysmenorrhea is more on mild pain, 60 students (45,5%) unbearable pain 5 students (3,8%) and moderate pain 35 students (26,5%). Statistical analysis with spearman correlation rank with 95% confidence interval (CI) (α < 0.05) obtained p value = 0.022, it means there is a relationship between breakfast with degrees of dysmenorrhea with correlation coefficient r = 0.2 with the strength of a strong relationship.


Breakfast, Dysmenorrhea Degrees, Visual Analog Scale


Abbaspour Z, Rostami M, Najjar Sh. The Effect of Exercise on Primary Dysmenorrhea. Journal Res Health Science. 2004; 4(2): 26-31

Adesola OA, Ayodeji RAM, Akorede QJ, Oluranti O. Breakfast Habit and Nutritional Status of Undergraduates in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health. 2014;2(4):252-6

Shrotriya Charu, Ray Amita, Ray Sujoy, George Aneesh Thomas. 'Menstrual Characteristics' and 'Prevalence and Effect of Dysmenorrhea' on Quality of Life of Medical Students. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health. 2012;4(4).

Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiol Rev. 2014;36(7):104-13

Canadian Consensus. Primary Dysmenorrhea Consensus Guideline. JOGC. 2005;169:1117-30.

Nooh M Ahmed. Menstrual disorder among Zagazig University Students, Zagazig, Egypt. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2014.

Unsal A, Ayranci U, Tozun M, Arslan G, Calik E. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;115(1):138-45.

Charu S, Amita R, Sujoy R, Thomas GA, Charu S, Amita R, et al. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence and effect of dysmenorrhea on quality of life of medical students. Int J Collab Res Intern Med Public. 2012;4(4):276-84.

Caro Luis, Perez Luis, Preciado Ventura. Analysis of Knowledge about healthy breakfast and its relation to life style habits and academic performance in compulsory secondary students. Elsevier. 2014;61(5):242-51

Larega T S P. Effect of Breakfast on the Level of Concentration in Adolescents. J Majority. 2015; 4(2): 115-21

Fujiwara Tomoko. Skipping Breakfast is Associated with Constipation in Post Adolescent Female College Student in Japan: Smith Catto Anthony, editor. Constipation-Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. Croatia: InTech. 2012; Ch 4

Hayam Fathy A Eittah. Effect of Breakfast Skipping on Young Females' Menstuation. Health Science Journal. 2014; 8(14) (4)

Rigon F, De Sanctis V, Bernasconi S, Bianchin L, Bona G, et all. Menstrual pattern and menstrual disorders among adolescents: an update of the Italian data. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2012;38:38.

Gagua T, Tkeshelashvili B and Gagua D. Primary dysmenorrhea: prevalence in adolescent population of Tbilisi, Georgia and risk factors. J Turkish German Gynecol Assoc. 2012; 13:162-8.

Corder K, van Sluijs EM, Steele RM, Stephen AM, Dunn V, Bamber D, et al. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents. British Journal of Nutrition. 2011 Jan; 105(2): 316-321. Doi: 10.1017/S0007114510003272. Date of Access: 22 June 2015 3:20 AM. [Open Access]

International Association of the Study of Pain. Primary dysmenorrhea: an urgent mandate. Pain Clin Updat. 2013;21(3):1-8.

Gavin N. Primary dysmenorrhea. Naturophatic treatment options. Toronto;2015



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Husnah Husnah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats