World Nutrition Journal <div><img src="/OJS/public/site/images/admin/Grayscale_Studio_Photography_Presentation1.png" width="583" height="437"></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Indonesian Nutrition Association en-US World Nutrition Journal 2580-7013 <p>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Seaweed as novel food for prevention and therapy for life style related disease Seaweed has long been known and consumed as a functional food and folk medicine, especially in people who live in coastal areas. Research on seaweed has recently increased with the surge need for alternative sources of functional food to deal with health problems related to lifestyle, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiology studies have found that population consumed seaweed is on a regular basis have significantly less diet-related diseases.<sup>1</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>2</sup> Even the largest population of old age is in Japan, which consumes the most seaweed in the world.<sup>1,</sup><sup>3</sup> In countries such as Japan, China, and Korea, approximately 66% of algae species have been used as a daily ingredient in their dishes for many years. Lindarsih Notowidjojo Copyright (c) 2021 Lindarsih Notowidjojo 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 1 5 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0001 Medical Nutrition Therapy In Enterocutaneous Fistula: A Step-By-Step Approach <p>Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) management is a challenge that requires a multidisciplinary team approach in achieving optimal clinical output. Nutrition as a component of management plays a vital role in determining the prognosis, both as a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition can also occurs as a preceeding situation or complication of ECF caused by the underlying disease, decreased food intake, increased protein requirements associated with systemic inflammation, and increased nutrient loss associated with the amount of fistula output. Thus, nutrition management can act as prevention, therapy, or both. Nutritional medical therapy in ECF cases aims to adequately estimate nutritional needs, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, and stimulate spontaneous ECF closure whenever possible. To achieve optimal outcome, nutrition needs analysis must be done individually by considering the etiology, anatomical location of the fistula, and the amount of output. In the following article, we will discuss a comprehensive step-by-step nutrition treatment, both from the nutritional routes consideration, macronutrient and micronutrient requirements, specific nutrients, pharmacotherapy, and monitoring and evaluation that need to be done to achieve optimal clinical outcomes. </p> Maggie Nathania Diyah Eka Andayani Copyright (c) 2021 Maggie Nathania 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 6 14 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0002 The Effect of Thiamine Supplementation for Critically Septic Patient: An Evidence-Based Case Report <p>Sepsis has been accounted for various burdens worldwide, especially in critically ill patients. This could eventually lead to inflammatory response, provocation ischemia and lactic acidosis. On the other hand, thiamine was suggested as a coenzyme which could improve the outcome of those patients. Thus, we conducted an evidence-based case study with research on PubMed, ProQuest, and Scopus using a search strategy focusing on RCT or cohort study on thiamine supplementation/level towards the outcome of critically ill patients with sepsis. We found three articles eligible for review after full-text assessment. Articles were appraised using the University of Oxford’s tools for critical appraisal. It was known that all studies were good in terms of validity and applicability. This study showed that thiamine supplementation could improve lactate clearance and reduce mortality risk, moreover, thiamine deficiency could increase the risk of lactate acidosis. However, a high level of thiamine was associated with a high level of lactate in patients with liver failure. Therefore, thiamine supplementation could be recommended for critically ill patients with sepsis and normal liver function. Further research, such as RCT or systematic review on thiamine supplementation for age groups to make this study more applicable.</p> Ayu Diandra Sari Melyarna Putri Sheena R. Angelia Mulianah Daya Anak Agung Eka Widya Saraswati Diyah Eka Andayani Diana Sunardi Copyright (c) 2021 Ayu Diandra Sari, Melyarna Putri, Sheena R. Angelia, Mulianah Daya, Anak Agung Eka Widya Saraswati, Diyah Eka Andayani, Diana Sunardi 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 15 22 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0003 Resuscitation Fluid Requirements in Burn Injury Patients Using Intravenous Vitamin C: An Evidence Based Case Report <p><strong>Background</strong>: Based on the Guideline of European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) in 2013, vitamin C is an additional therapy for burn patients during the resuscitation process and reduce the amount of fluid resuscitation but still needs further evidence. This study aims to find the effect of intravenous vitamin C administration to reduce the fluid requirements during first 24 hours resuscitation in burn patients.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Electronic Literature search were performed in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and ProQuest databases. Hand searching was also performed. MesH Term was used in PubMed database searching. All literature obtained was screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Three articles were selected based on the eligibility criteria. Two Randomized Controlled Trial / RCT studies concluded that intravenous vitamin C administration reduced resuscitation fluid requirements in burn patients. But in the case control study there was no significant difference in resuscitation fluid requirements between the two groups. Other study reported that there were significant differences in resuscitation fluid requirements between the two groups. Both RCT studies did not use the blinding method and explained the side effects of therapy. A case control study reported an increase in cases of acute kidney failure in the vitamin C group compared to control (23% vs 7%) although it was not statistically significant.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Intravenous vitamin C can reduce the resuscitation fluid requirements in the first 24 hours in burn patients (grade C recommendation).</p> Hendra Hendra Davie Muhamad Diyah Eka Andayani Copyright (c) 2021 Hendra, Davie Muhamad, Diyah Eka Andayani 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 23 29 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0004 Low Dietary Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Ratio Enhances Adiponectin Level in Obesity <p class="BulletText1"><span lang="IN">Every year around the world, the prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity and its </span><span lang="EN-US">associated </span><span lang="IN">diseases have become some of the most pressing health problems in developed and developing countries. In its development, adipocytes dysfunction and chronic low-grade inflammation occur in obesity will stimulate diseases at higher risk including type 2 diabetes mellitus</span><span lang="EN-US"> (T2DM)</span><span lang="IN">, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Western </span><span lang="EN-US">diet</span><span lang="IN"> and sedentary lifestyle are thought to have significantly contributed to the increase in obesity recently. Diet modification is a sound method to prevent obesity and its complications. Nevertheless, the concern lies in the ratio of omega-6 </span><span lang="EN-US">towards</span><span lang="IN"> omega-3 fatty acids </span><span lang="IN">intake, which in its current state </span><span lang="EN-US">indicates</span><span lang="IN"> an imparity. Omega-3 and omega-6 are two essential fatty acids that emerge as dominant factors in obesity through adiponectin. Adiponectin refers to a protein hormone conceived by adipocytes to prevent obesity and its subsequent complications by increasing insulin sensitivity, fatty acid oxidation, anti</span><span lang="EN-US">-</span><span lang="IN">inflammatory, and antiaterogenic. Th</span><span lang="EN-US">is study </span><span lang="IN">aims to determine the mechanism and the role of fatty acids in omega-</span><span lang="EN-US">6</span><span lang="IN"> towards those within omega-</span><span lang="EN-US">3</span><span lang="IN"> by using adiponectin as the indicator of advancement to obesity and its underlying diseases.</span></p> Helena Fabiani Ninik Mudjihartini Wiji Lestari Copyright (c) 2021 Helena Fabiani, Ninik Mudjihartini, Wiji Lestari 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 30 39 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0005 Dietary Fiber's Effect on High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein Serum in Sedentary Workers Low grade inflammation has been recognized of being involved in the pathogenesis of chronic disease pandemic. Individual lifestyle plays a major role in the development of low grade inflammation. Sedentary workers are at risk of low grade inflammation due to the nature of their work. Dietary habit also contributes to inflammatory status in the body. Dietary fiber intake indirectly affects the immune system. It has been hypothesized that fiber has anti-inflammatory effects, both body weight-related and body weight-unrelated This review will focus more on body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory effect of fiber, especially through fiber’s fermentation metabolites, the short chain fatty acid (SCFA). Its anti-inflammatory effect can be seen by monitoring a biomarker of inflammation in the body, the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). This review’s objective is to cover the mechanisms and role of dietary fiber intake on serum hsCRP level as a marker of low grade inflammation on sedentary workers.<p class="BulletText1"> </p> Livia Kurniati Saputra Dian Novita Chandra Ninik Mudjihartini Copyright (c) 2021 Livia Kurniati Saputra; Dian Novita Chandra; Ninik Mudjihartini 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 40 46 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0006 The Potential of Seaweed Salt as an Alternative Low Natrium Salt: Safety and Sensory Test <p>Indonesia is one of the largest producers of red seaweed in the world, but there is very little research done on the role of red seaweed in the health sector. This study is about red seaweed type <em>Euchema cottoni </em>and it’s potential as seaweed salt that has lower natrium and rich in other minerals.</p><p>This research was divided into two phases and conducted from December 2016 to March 2017. The first phase is a safety analysis in terms of metal, mold and bacteria contamination of seaweed from three different places of Indonesia: Saumlaki, Maluku; Nusa Dua, Bali and Flores, Nusa Tenggara Barat. After the seaweed safety was selected, the seaweed was made into powder at Industrial Research and Development Agency (BPPT), Tangerang. The seaweed powder mixed with ordinary salt with four type of concentrations were subjected to a salty sensory test by nine panellists who have been working at the food production at Hospital for at least one year. The second phase was to do acceptance sensory test of the seaweed salt product taste against a concentration that was selected in first phase to first-degree hypertensive subjects aged 25–59 years by using soup as the meal-media. Chi-square test was used to analyse the difference.</p><p>Seaweed from Saumlaki, Maluku was selected as the safest seaweed due to it’s lowest content of metal, mold and bacterial contaminations. The ratio of seaweed powder to ordinary salt powder 1:1 was selected by nine panellists in salty sensory test. Analysis of minerals from the seaweed salt product found that besides the lower sodium and Iodium content, it’s potassium and magnesium content were much higher than ordinary salt. Salty taste test by 62 respondents with first degree hypertension with age 25-59 years showed no significant difference in saltiness between seaweed salt and ordinary salt.</p><p>In conclusion, the seaweed salt product with a 1:1 ratio to ordinary salt powder is safe and acceptable to be used as an alternative low Na salt.</p> Lindarsih Notowidjojo Purwantyastuti Ascobat Saptawati Bardosono Jana Tjahjana Copyright (c) 2021 Lindarsih Notowidjojo, Purwantyastuti Ascobat, Saptawati Bardosono, Jana Tjahjana Anggadiredja 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 47 52 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0007 Partially Hydrolyzed Whey Protein: A Review of Current Evidence, Implementation, and Further Directions <p><strong>Background</strong>: Human milk is known to be the best nutrition for infants as it provides many health benefits. For non-breastfed infants, cow's milk based infant formula is the most optimal option to provide the needed nutrition. However, approximately 2-5% of all formula-fed infants experience cow’s milk allergy during their first year of life. Partially hydrolyzed whey formula (pHF-W) have been widely recommended to prevent the development of allergic disease in infants. However, according to epidemiological data, approximately half of the infants developing allergy are not part of the at-risk group.</p><p><strong>Objectives and Methods:</strong> This article aims to review the effects of pHF-W in preventing allergy, especially atopic disease, in all non-breastfed infants, as well as the safety aspect of pHF-W if used as routine formula. The role of pHF-W in the management of functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders is also reviewed.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Several clinical studies showed that pHF-W decrease the number of infants with eczema. The strongest evidence is provided by the 15-year follow up of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention study which showed reduction in the cumulative incidence of eczema and allergic rhinitis in pHF-W (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96 for eczema; OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95 for allergic rhinitis) and casein extensively hydrolysed formula group (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.77 for eczema; OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.84 for allergic rhinitis), compared to CMF as a control, after 15 years of follow-up. pHF-W was also found to be beneficial in the management of functional GI disorders such as regurgitation, constipation and colic.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The use of pHF-W in allergic infants has been recommended in various guidelines across the countries, as a primary prevention of allergic disease. One pHF-W has been approved by the US FDA and the European Commission's European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for its safety and suitability as a routine infant formula for all healthy infants. According to the data obtained in the management of functional GI disorders, pHF-W is better tolerated than formula with intact protein. Further studies assessing the effect of routine use of pHF-W in a larger population of non-breastfed infants should also be conducted, in order to observe any potential harm and to determine the benefit and cost-effectiveness ratio.</p> Badriul Hegar Zakiudin Munasir Ahmad Suryawan I gusti Lanang Sidhiarta Ketut Dewi Kumara Wati Erfi Prafiantini Irene Irene Yvan Vandenplas Copyright (c) 2021 Badriul Hegar, Zakiudin Munasir, Ahmad Suryawan, I Gusti Lanang Sidhiarta, Ketut Dewi Kumara Wati, Erfi Prafiantini, Irene, Yvan Vandenplas 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 53 60 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0008 The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy on The Risk of Having Preterm Birth: An Evidence-based Case Report <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women is one of the most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency, that increase the risk of PTB. Vitamin D has the role of immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, and transcription of genes involved in placental function. Research results on the correlation between vitamin D supplementation and PTB risk are still inconsistent.</p><p><strong>Objective: </strong>To observe the effect of oral vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on the risk of PTB<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Methods:</strong><strong> </strong>Advanced search for relevant literatures in PubMed, Cochrane, and Willey was conducted. After assessing the relevancy and eligibility, articles were selected and critically appraised.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Results</strong>: There were three articles that relevant with the eligibility criteria and clinical questions, they were randomized controlled trial, meta-analysis and systematic review. Three studies found that oral vitamin D supplementation in the form of cholecalciferol during pregnancy had a significant reduction on the risk of PTB. A systematic review found that supplementation with combination of cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate may increase the risk of PTB. The different dosages, frequencies, and time of initiation limit the generalizations for efficacy and safety doses.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Oral cholecalciferol supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of PTB. While supplementation with combination of cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate requires consideration. Further research is needed to find out about the dose, frequency, time of initiation, adverse events and effects of vitamin D when combined with other vitamins and minerals.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pregnancy, vitamin D, vitamin D3, cholecalciferol, preterm birth, preterm labor.</p> Intan Meilana Diyah Eka Andayani Copyright (c) 2021 Intan Meilana, Diyah Eka Andayani 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 61 69 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0009 Take-out food frequency was associated with energy intake among mothers of young children in urban slum area in North Jakarta <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Inadequate energy intake was prevalent among women of reproductive age, which may contribute to poor diet. Having great concern towards health and nutrition may play a role in shaping eating habit and food-related behavior to achieve a healthy diet. This study aims to examine the association between health concern and energy intake, while considering other factors such as cooking frequency and having food away from home.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban slum area in Jakarta, involving 233 mothers of young children through consecutive sampling. Data was collected through interview using structured questionnaire, including 2x24-hour dietary recall. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Energy intake of most subjects did not meet the recommendation. There was no significant correlation between health concern measured by General Health Interest Scale and energy intake. The frequency of having take-out food was a significant predictor of the energy intake. Additionally, a significant negative correlation between health concern and having take-out food was found.</p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Having take-out food was associated with energy intake. Provision of health and nutrition information in the food stores might help to increase health concern to shape a healthier diet. Thus, a collaborative effort targeting both food sellers and customers is essential. Fitya Safira Birahmatika Dian Novita Chandra Luh Ade Ari Wiradnyani Copyright (c) 2021 Fitya Safira Birahmatika, Dian Novita Chandra, Luh Ade Ari Wiradnyani 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 70 79 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0010 The role of nutrtion in children with celiac disease Celiac disease, a permanent, irreversible but treatable disease is an autoimmune disease triggered by gluten ingestion in genetically predisposed individuals, also known as celiac sprue and gluten sensitive enteropathy. <p><strong>Recent findings</strong></p><p>Intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy in small intestines by permanent intolerance to gluten in celiac disesea leads to seveare malabsorption. About 20%-38% patients were basically nutritionally imbalance secondary malabsorption due to mucosal damage. Nutrition plays a very important role in the management of celiac disease. Gluten free diet must be balanced to cover nutrient requirements to prevent deficiencies and ensure children’s health, growth and development.</p><p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p><p>Gluten-free diet is the only accepted and available treatment in CD. It was a life-long treatment, if not carried out with attention, it may lead to nutritional imbalance which can affect children’s growth and development</p><br /><p> </p> Muzal Kadim Copyright (c) 2021 Muzal Kadim 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 80 87 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0011 Fluid consumption, hydration status, and its associated factors: a cross sectional study among medical students in Palembang, Indonesia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adequate fluid consumption and hydration status of students become a special concern because being dehydrated by just 1%-2% can impair cognitive performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the daily fluid consumption, and analyze the correlation of fluid consumption and other associated factors with hydration status of medical students in Universitas Sriwijaya.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 93 medical students in Universitas Sriwijaya were recruited to complete a 7-day cross-sectional study. Subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day-24-hours fluid record and provide first morning urine sample on the last day. Gender information was collected. Physical activity was evaluated by self-administered long version of IPAQ. Body mass index was calculated using body weight and body height measurement. Urine specific gravity was determined by urinometer. The 7-day-24-hours fluid record and 1-day-24-hours urine specific gravity were calculated and analyzed.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Majority of the subjects were well hydrated, while 10.8% were slightly dehydrated, 6.5% were moderately dehydrated and 9.7% were severely dehydrated. The average of daily fluid consumption was 1789.28 (989.3-2930) mL. Coefficient correlation of fluid consumption from beverages with urine specific gravity was -0.651 (p=0.00) by Pearson correlation test. The hydration status showed no association with gender, physical activity and body mass index.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Most subjects in this study were well hydrated. A strong association was found between fluid consumption and hydration status. It was feasible to use daily fluid consumption from beverages to predict hydration status.</p> Dwi Lisa Nur'aini Ardesy Melizah Kurniati Moretta Damayanti Syarif Husin Joko Marwoto Copyright (c) 2021 Dwi Lisa Nur’aini, Ardesy Melizah Kurniati, Moretta Damayanti, Syarif Husin, Joko Marwoto 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 88 94 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0012 Nutritional status indicator and its correlation with mental health score among adolescents in Islamic boarding schools <p><strong>Background</strong>: It has been estimated that about 10–20% of adolescents worldwide had experiences of mental health problems. Malnutrition, including overweight and obese, is one of the risk factors for mental health in adolescents. There is a knowledge gap regarding the nutritional status and its correlation with mental health among adolescents who live in boarding schools. This study aimed to determine nutritional status and its correlation with mental health among adolescents in Islamic boarding schools.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional approach was used in this study in which two schools in South Tangerang City of Banten Province were purposively selected and 302 of students aged 15–18 years were completed this study. BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) was used as the nutritional status indicator, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to determine mental health of the subjects. Spearman correlation was used to determine the correlation between nutritional status indicator and mental health score.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Nearly 30% of the subjects were overweight and obese, and almost 20% had result of mental health score in categories “borderline” and “abnormal”. There was a significant correlation between nutritional status indicator and mental health score among adolescents in Islamic boarding schools (r=0.157, P=0.006).</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Adolescents who had higher BAZ, had higher total difficulties scores. The schools and policy makers should give attention to nutritional status of the students since it is correlated with mental health.</p> Soraya Ningrum NP Nauli Saptawati Bardosono Luh Ade Wiradnyani Copyright (c) 2021 Soraya Ningrum NP Nauli, Saptawati Bardosono, Luh Ade Wiradnyani 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 95 105 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0013 Iron Intake and Its Correlation to Ferritin and Hemoglobin Level among Children Aged 24–36 Months in Jakarta in 2020 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Iron is essential for child’s development and growth. Children’s iron requirements are secured from daily food intake that might be affected by Covid-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine iron intake and its relationship with ferritin and hemoglobin levels as indicators of iron status among children in Jakarta.</p><p><strong>Method: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampung Melayu, Jakarta from September to October 2020. Seventy seven healthy children aged 24–36 months were taken using total population sampling method. Interviews were conducted to obtain characteristics data and iron intake using a semi-quantitative-food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). Blood tests are performed to check the levels of ferritin (controlled by hs-CRP value), and hemoglobin.Pearson’s/Spearman’s correlation test was performed using SPSS version 20.0. </p><p><strong>Result:</strong> Median of iron intake was 9.6 (1.5–40,7) mg/day, in which 33.8% of subjects was below the Indonesian Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) recommendation. The median ferritin value was 18.1 (1.4–91.1) 𝜇g/L and the hemoglobin was 11.8 (6.6–15.2) g/dL, in which 40.3% and 27.3% subjects with iron insufficient-deficient and anemia, respectively. There were positive correlations between iron intake and ferritin (r = 0.328, p = 0.002) and iron intake and hemoglobin (r = 0.308, p = 0.003). A strong positive correlation was found between ferritin and hemoglobin (r = 0.769, p &lt; 0.001).</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Iron intake of children aged 24–36 months had a weak positive correlation with ferritin and hemoglobin level. </p><p><strong>Keywords: </strong>children 24–36 months, ferritin, hemoglobin, iron intake, Jakarta</p> Jessica Ferdi Saptawati Bardosono Bernie Endyarni Medise Copyright (c) 2021 Jessica Ferdi, Saptawati Bardosono, Bernie Endyarni Medise 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 106 112 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0014 The correlation between body mass index and the risk of osteoporosis in Acehnese adult females in Zainoel Abidin General Hospital <p><strong>Background</strong>: Osteoporosis is a condition in which bone become weak and brittle characterized with lower bone density and quality causing increased risk of fracture. The elderly is the most common group to be affected and female is more prone compared to male. One of modifiable risk factors of osteoporosis is low body mass index or underweight. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between body mass index and the risk of osteoporosis on Acehnese adult females in RSUDZA.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was an analytic observational-cross sectional study which was completed at the Internal Medicine and Orthopedic Policlinic at Zainoel Abidin General Hospital Banda Aceh from August 27<sup>th</sup> to September 13<sup>th</sup> 2019. The sampling method used was nonprobability sampling with accidental sampling technique. The body mass index was obtained by measuring respondents’ height and weight while the risk of osteoporosis was assessed by measuring OSTA Score.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Results showed that most of respondents was aged between 40-45 years old (55.4%) and there are 62 respondents (74.7%) with abnormal body mass index consisted of 9 underweight respondents (10.8%), 11 overweight respondents (13.3%), and 42 obese respondents (50.6%). The risk of osteoporosis was dominantly mild (69.9%). There were 7 underweight respondents (77.8) had moderate risk of osteoporosis while 2 underweight respondents had severe risk (22.2%). Meanwhile, 41 obese respondents had mild risk of osteoporosis (97.6%). Correlation test using Spearman showed <em>p </em>value 0.000 (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) and rs = -0,731 which means that there is a strong correlation between body mass index and the risk of osteoporosis.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Lower body mass index is directly proportional with higher risk of osteoporosis.</p><span><span><br /></span></span> Nadia Safhira Putri Ananda Husnah Husnah Safrizal Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Nadia Safhira Putri Ananda; Husnah; Safrizal Rahman 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 113 120 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0015 Food avoidance behaviour among children aged 2 – 6 years in North Jakarta and its correlation with weight and energy intake <p><strong>Background</strong>: Children generally facing food avoidance or food refusal behaviour and it may affect their food consumption. But there is limited information on food avoidance behaviour among Indonesian children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether energy intake and body weight are influenced by food avoidance behaviour in children aged 2-6 years in North Jakarta.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Participants (N=168) were recruited between February – March 2020. Data collection was obtained via interviews with the mother or caregiver of the children. Food avoidance behaviour consisting of satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional under-eating, and food fussiness was measured with the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The child’s weight and dietary intake were<strong> </strong>assessed using a digital weighing scale and 2 x 24 hours food recall. Spearman test was performed to analyse the correlation between these variables. Multivariate analysis was done using linear regression to determine predictors of a child’s body weight and energy intake.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Energy intake among children was below the recommendation, and it was significantly correlated with the child’s body weight. Satiety responsiveness was negatively correlated with the child’s body weight (r = -0.166; p-value &lt; 0.05) and energy intake (r = -0.210; p-value &lt; 0.05). After running a linear regression test, we found that satiety responsiveness along with family income and child’s age was a significant predictor of energy intake among children.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Children who are more responsive to satiety had lower body weight and energy intake. Understanding the child’s food avoidance behaviour is useful for designing intervention programs related to optimizing intake in children and malnutrition.</p> Alfi Rahma Putri Dian Novita Chandra Luh Ade Ari Wiradnyani Copyright (c) 2021 Alfi Rahma Putri, Dian Novita Chandra, Luh Ade Ari Wiradnyani 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 121 130 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0016 The importance of school snacks for primary school-aged children nutritional support as the foundation of Sekolah Generasi Maju in Indonesia <pre>As a developing country, Indonesia is still burdened with high prevalence of child malnutrition including those in primary school. One of the main factors affecting nutritional status of children is snack consumption in school. School snacks are expected to be able to contribute to nutritional requirements. This narrative review is written to collect information and knowledge regarding nutritional status, nutritional requirements, factors determining nutritional status of primary school children and, lastly, recommended school snacks. This review also acts as a basic information for school snacks program establishment.</pre> Saptawati Bardosono Pittara Pansawira Copyright (c) 2021 Saptawati Bardosono, Pittara Pansawira 2021-02-26 2021-02-26 5 1 131 138 10.25220/WNJ.V05.i1.0017