Protein and iron intake adequacy among high school girls in Depok, Indonesia

Main Article Content

Meirina Khoirunnisa
Yoga Devaera
Umi Fahmida
Fiastuti Witjaksono
Erfi Prafiantini

Abstract

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia among adolescent girls. The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women increased from 2013 to 2018, and females age 15-24 years had the highest prevalence of anemia. Therefore, knowing the baseline status of protein and iron intake —particularly animal-sourced protein as the main source of heme iron—is important to design future intervention program. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the protein and iron intake adequacy of High School girls in Depok, Indonesia.
Methods: 211 girls from Senior High School in Depok, Indonesia participated in this study. Subjects were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. A questionnaire was administered to obtain general characteristics.  Dietary intake data were obtained using a 3-day non-consecutive 24hr recall 1 weekend 2 weekdays interview. Anthropometric status was measured and calculated. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Spearman’s correlation (significance p<0.05) was used to determine the factors related to protein and iron intake.
Results: This population had inadequate intake of energy (97.2%), protein (59.7%), and iron (98.6%). However, intake of fat was higher than recommended in 59.2% of participants. Protein and iron intake were not correlated with age, father’s education, mother’s education, and the number of household member.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Meirina Khoirunnisa, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia-Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition

Yoga Devaera, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta-Indonesia

Department of Pediatrics

Fiastuti Witjaksono, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia-Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition

Erfi Prafiantini, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia-Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition

References

Stang J, Story M. Guidelines for Adolescent Nutrition Services. Chapter 1: Adolescent Growth and Development. 2005. http://www.epi.umn.edu/let/pubs/adol_book.shtm.

Ransom EI, Elder LK. 2003. Nutrition of Women and Adolescent Girls: Why It Matters. 2003. Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2003/NutritionofWomenandAdolescentGirlsWhyItMatters.aspx

Indonesian Ministry of Health. RISKESDAS 2018. Kemenkes, Jakarta. https://www.kemkes.go.id/resources/download/info-terkini/hasil-riskesdas-2018.pdf

Sumarlan ES, Windiastuti E, Gunardi H. 2018. Iron Status, Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Adolescent Girls from Different Socioeconomic Status in Indonesia. Makara J. Health Res., 2018, 22(1): 46-52 DOI: 10.7454/msk.v22i1.8078

National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition (NCCFN) Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2017. Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. https://expert.taylors.edu.my/file/rems/publication/107126_3033_1.pdf

Badan Pusat Statistik, 2020. Konsumsi Kalori dan Protein Penduduk Indonesia dan Provinsi. Maret 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik. https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2020/11/02/dde28c6757a5e3ef908f5452/konsumsi-kalori-dan-protein-penduduk-indonesia-dan-provinsi-maret-2020.html

Valanou, E., Naska, A., Barbouni, A., Katsoulis, M., Peppa, E., Vidalis, P., & Trichopoulou, A. 2018. Evaluation of food photographs assessing the dietary intake of children up to 10 years old. Public Health Nutrition, 21(5), 888-895. doi:10.1017/S136898001700335427.

Fahmida U, Dillon D. H. S. 2011. Nutritional Assessment: Handbook (2nd ed.). Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Regional Centre for Food and Nutrition University of Indonesia (SEAMEO RECFON UI)

Applegate, L., Ozpınar, H. (2011). Nutrition and Diet (1st ed.). İstanbul: Istanbul Medical Publishing.

Praditasari J. A., Sumarmi S. 2018. Asupan Lemak, Aktivitas Fisik, dan Kegemukan pada Remaja Putri di SMP Bina Insani Surabaya. Media Gizi Indonesia, Vol. 13, No. 2 Juli–Desember 2018: hlm. 117–122. DOI: 10.20473/mgi.v13i2.117–122

Sargowo D, Andarini S. 2011. The Relationship between Food Intake and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome. J Kardiol Indones. 2011;32:14-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30701/ijc.v32i1.116

Giovannini M, Agostoni C, Gianni M, Bernardo L, Riva E, 2000. Adolescence: macronutrient needs. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54 Suppl 1, S7-S10. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600977

Edward C.A., Xie C, Garcia A.L. 2015. Dietary Fibre and Health in Children and Adolescents. Conference on ‘Carbohydrates in health: friends or foes’ Plenary Lecture 4. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2015), 74, 292–302. doi:10.1017/S0029665115002335

Carrard, Kruseman M, Marques-Vidal P. Desire to lose weight, dietary intake and psychological correlates among middle-aged and older women. The CoLaus Study. Preventive Medicine 113 (2018) 41-50. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.05.011

Ferguson EL, Watson L, Chea M, et al. Realistic food-based approaches alone may not ensure dietary adequacy for women and young children in South East Asia. Matern Child Health J. 2019; 23(Suppl 1):55-66. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-018-2638-3

Sreymom O, Witjaksono F, Mustafa A, Setyobudi SI, Fahmida U. 2019. Problem Nutrients in Adolescent Girls With Anemia Versus Nonanemic Adolescent Girls and the Optimized Food-Based Recommendations to Meet Adequacy of These Nutrients in Adolescent School Girls in East Java, Indonesia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2019, 40(3) 295-307 https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119851326

Hermoso M, Vucic V, Vollhardt C, Arsic A, Roman-Viñas B, Iglesia-Altaba I, Gurinovic M, Koletzko B: The Effect of Iron on Cognitive Development and Function in Infants, Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Ann Nutr Metab 2011;59:154-165. DOI: 10.1159/000334490

Chaudhury RH. 1989. Determinants of Nutrient Adequacy in A Rural Area of Bangladesh. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 8, no. 4 1986, The United Nations University. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/156482658600800413