Dietary intake and obesity in oil and gas workers: A literature review

Main Article Content

Nur Lailatuz Zahra
Dian Novita Chandra


Introduction Working in oil and gas industries was found to be associated with unhealthy lifestyle, obesity, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to systematically review the dietary intake, obesity status, and identify possible workplace health promotion strategies for oil and gas setting.
Methods: This literature review was conducted through a comprehensive search of Scopus database. Search terms included diet (and synonym), worker (and synonyms), oil and gas (and synonym). The search was limited to paper in English and Indonesian. Combinations of the keyword yielded 76 papers, of which 13 articles were relevant.
Results: Reviewed studies implied that diet consist high amount of fat, particularly saturated fat, and cholesterol, with low intake of dietary fiber. Fatigue, boredom, and inadequate sleep may influence unhealthy food choices. All studies revealed that mean BMI among oil and gas workers was found to be higher than general adult population, ranged from 24 to almost 30 kg/m2. Possible health promotion components to be modified are knowledge and beliefs, self-care, peer support, food availability and time restriction at cafeterias.
Conclusion: It is confirmed that obesity and NCDs prevalence were high in oil and gas worker, however the updated studies addressing their dietary intake are needed. Health promotion initiative made by oil and gas company are unlikely to be found in scientific paper. There is a need for more health promotion program that scientifically designed so that the outcome and cost effectiveness can be measured properly


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Author Biographies

Nur Lailatuz Zahra, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia – Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition

Dian Novita Chandra, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia – Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition


Statistics WE. World Energy Statistics 2018. Int Energy Agency. 2018;

Mette J, Garrido MV, Harth V, Preisser AM, Mache S. “ It ’ s still a great adventure ” – exploring offshore employees ’ working conditions in a qualitative study. 2017;1–13.

Amani R, Gill T. Shiftworking, nutrition and obesity: Implications for workforce health- a systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(4):505–15.

Preiss K, Brennan L, Clarke D. A systematic review of variables associated with the relationship between obesity and depression. Obes Rev. 2013;14(11):906–18.

Sun M, Feng W, Wang F, Li P, Li Z, Li M, et al. Meta-analysis on shift work and risks of specific obesity types. Obes Rev. 2018;19(1):28–40.

Souza RV, Sarmento RA, de Almeida JC, Canuto R. The effect of shift work on eating habits: A systematic review. Scand J Work Environ Heal. 2019;45(1):7–21.

Chen WQ, Wong TW, Yu ITS. Association of occupational stress and social support with health-related behaviors among Chinese offshore oil workers. J Occup Health. 2008;

Fajrin VC. The Overview of Mental Workload of Health Safety and Environment Workers in Oil and Gas Industry Gambaran Berat Beban Kerja Mental Pekerja Industri Minyak dan Gas. Indones J Occup Saf Heal. 2020;9(2):154–62.

Mannocci A, Pignalosa S, Nicosia V, Saulle R, Sernia S, La Torre G. Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in oil and gas workers: A ten years observational retrospective cohort. Ann di Ig. 2016;28(2):122–32.

Stewart AD, Ledingham RL, Furnace G, Williams H, Nevill AM. Shape change and obesity prevalence among male UK offshore workers after 30 years: New insight from a 3D scanning study. Am J Hum Biol. 2017;29(4):1–7.

Baghshini MR, Nikbakht-Jam I, Mohaddes-Ardabili H, Pasdar A, Avan A, Tayefi M, et al. Higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome among male employees of a gas refinery than in their counterparts in nonindustrial environments. Asian Biomed. 2017;11(3):227–34.

Mannocci A, Pignalosa S, Saulle R, Sernia S, De Sanctis S, Consentino M, et al. Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors among oil and gas and energy company workers. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2015;

Ni Mhurchu C, Aston LM, Jebb SA. Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2010;

Tsai SP, Ahmed FS, Wendt JK, Bhojani F, Donnelly RP. The Impact of Obesity on Illness Absence and Productivity in an Industrial Population of Petrochemical Workers. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18(1):8–14.

Goldgruber J, Ahrens D. Effectiveness of workplace health promotion and primary prevention interventions: A review. Journal of Public Health. 2010.

Cancelliere C, Cassidy JD, Ammendolia C, Côté P. Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? A systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature. BMC Public Health. 2011;

Ruffner R, Riedel JE, Lynch W, Baase C, Hymel P, Peterson KW. The effect of disease prevention and health promotion on workplace productivity: A literature review. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001.

Rongen A, Robroek SJW, Van Lenthe FJ, Burdorf A. Workplace health promotion: A meta-analysis of effectiveness. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013.

Smith KG, Paudyal V, Quinn F, Klein S, Stewart D. Offshore workers and health behaviour change: An exploration using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Int Marit Health. 2018;69(4):248–56.

Oshaug A, Østgård LI, Trygg KU. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Br J Nutr. 1992;68(1):11–9.

Heath G, Coates A, Sargent C, Dorrian J. Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers. 2016;1–15.

Poorabdian S, Mirlohi AH, Habibi E, Shakerian M. Association between job strain (high demand-low control) and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2013;26(4):555–62.

Christina D, Ayu R, Sartika D. Obesitas pada Pekerja Minyak dan Gas Obesity among Oil and Gas Workers. Natl Public Heal J. 2011;6(3):104–10.

Parkes KR. Demographic and lifestyle predictors of body mass index among offshore oil industry workers: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2003;53(3):213–21.

Al-Asi T. Overweight and obesity among Kuwait Oil Company employees: A cross-sectional study. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 2003;53(7):431–5.

Talvi AI, Järvisalo JO, Knuts LR. A health promotion programme for oil refinery employees: Changes of health promotion needs observed at three years. Occup Med (Chic Ill). 1999;49(2):93–101.

Viterbo LMF, Dinis MAP, Vidal DG, Costa AS. Implementation of an interdisciplinary approach to promote workers global health status in the oil industry, Brazil (2006–2015). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(12).

Hassani B, Amani R, Haghighizadeh MH, Araban M. A priority oriented nutrition education program to improve nutritional and cardiometabolic status in the workplace: A randomized field trial. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2020;15(1):1–9.

Bonham MP, Bonnell EK, Huggins CE. Energy intake of shift workers compared to fixed day workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chronobiology International. 2016.

Paper FAOF. Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. Vol. 91, FAO food and nutrition paper. 2010. 1–166 p.

Antunes LC, Levandovski R, Dantas G, Caumo W, Hidalgo MP. Obesity and shift work: Chronobiological aspects. Nutr Res Rev. 2010;23(1):155–68.

Si S, Moss JR, Sullivan TR, Newton SS, Stocks NP. Effectiveness of general practice-based health checks: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of General Practice. 2014.

Mearns K, Hope L. Health and well-being in the offshore environment : The management of personal health. Psychology. 2005;

Corpes A. Offshore installations benefit from nutrition training programmes. Vol. 133. 2015.

Mearns K, Hope L, Reader T. Health and well-being in the offshore environment The role of the organisational support Prepared by the University of Aberdeen The role of the organisational support. Rural Remote Health. 2018;18(2).

Jamal SN, Moy FM, Mohamed MNA, Mukhtar F. Effectiveness of a group support lifestyle modification (GSLiM) programme among obese adults in workplace: A randomised controlled trial. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):1–22.

Schliemann D, Woodside J V. The effectiveness of dietary workplace interventions: A systematic review of systematic reviews. Public Health Nutr. 2019;22(5):942–55.

Anderson LM, Quinn TA, Glanz K, Ramirez G, Kahwati LC, Johnson DB, et al. The Effectiveness of Worksite Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions for Controlling Employee Overweight and Obesity. A Systematic Review. Am J Prev Med [Internet]. 2009;37(4):340–57. Available from: