The Importance of Iron To Support Optimum Cognitive Development

Main Article Content

Rini Sekartini

Abstract

The fetal brain anatomy development starts during the last trimester of pregnancy and continue in early months of life. This critical process makes it vulnerable to insufficient nutrition, while brain growth continues into adulthood, micronutrient status can affect functioning beyond childhood. Iron is an important nutrient for the production and growth of cells in the immune and neural systems. Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world, affecting about half of all pregnant women and their offspring. Iron deficiency anemia has long been believed to have an effect on the central nervous system. Iron deficiency in late trimester and in newborn leads to abnormal cognitive function and emotional control that may continue in adulthood.
In summary, despite some evidence that iron supplementation enhances cognitive performance. Evidence of the role of iron in brain development and the effect of iron deficiency or iron supplementation on early development is uncertain.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biography

Rini Sekartini, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Child Health

References

Prado EL, Dewey KG. Nutrition and brain development in early life. Nutr Rev. 2014;72(4):267–84.

Gilmore, J., Knickmeyer, R. & Gao, W. Imaging structural and functional brain development in early childhood. Nat Rev Neurosci 19, 123–137 (2018).

Stiles J, Jernigan TL. The basics of brain development. Neuropsychol Rev. 2010;20(4):327–48.

McCann S, Amadó MP, Moore SE. The role of iron in brain development: A systematic review. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):1–23.

Ferreira A, Neves P, Gozzelino R. Multilevel impacts of iron in the brain: The cross talk between neurophysiological mechanisms, cognition, and social behavior. Pharmaceuticals. 2019;12(3):1–26.

Magistretti PJ, Allaman I. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging. Neuron. 2015;86(4):883–901.

Falkowska A, Gutowska I, Goschorska M, Nowacki P, Chlubek D, Baranowska-Bosiacka I. Energy metabolism of the brain, including the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons, especially in the context of glycogen metabolism. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(11):25959–81.

Couperus JW, Nelson CA. Early brain development and plasticity. In: McCartney K, Phillips D, eds. The Blackwell Handbook of Early Childhood Development. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publsihing; 2006:85–105

Mamun MA Al, Ghani RBA. The role of iron and zinc in cognitive development of children. Asian J Med Biol Res. 2017;3(2):145–51.

Hermoso M, Vucic V, Vollhardt C, Arsic A, Roman-Viñas B, Iglesia-Altaba I, et al. The effect of iron on cognitive development and function in infants, children and adolescents: A systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;59(2–4):154–65.

Gupta PM, Perrine CG, Mei Z, Scanlon KS. Iron, anemia, and Iron deficiency anemia among young children in the United States. Nutrients. 2016;8(6):10–3.

Uijterschout L, Vloemans J, Rövekamp-Abels L, Feitsma H, Van Goudoever JB, Brus F. The influences of factors associated with decreased iron supply to the fetus during pregnancy on iron status in healthy children aged 0.5 to 3 years. J Perinatol. 2014;34(3):229–33.

WHO. The global prevalence of anaemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2015.

Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, Paciorek CJ, Flaxman SR, Branca F, et al. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: A systematic analysis of population-representative data. Lancet Glob Heal. 2013;1(1):16–25.

WHO. Guideline Daily Iron supplimentation in infants and Children. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2016.

Barragán-Iba˜nez, G.A. Santoyo-Sánchez COR-P. Iron deficiency anaemia. Rev Med Hosp Gen Méx. 2016;79(2):88–979.

Larson LM, Phiri KS, Pasricha SR. Iron and Cognitive Development: What Is the Evidence? Ann Nutr Metab. 2017;71(3):25–38.

Grzeszczak K, Kwiatkowski S, Kosik-Bogacka D. The role of fe, zn, and cu in pregnancy. Biomolecules. 2020;10(8):1–33.

Juul SE, Derman RJ, Auerbach M. Perinatal Iron Deficiency: Implications for Mothers and Infants. Neonatology. 2019;115(3):269–74.

Georgieff MK. Iron deficiency in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223(4):516–24.

Friedrisch JR, Friedrisch BK. Prophylactic Iron Supplementation in Pregnancy: A Controversial Issue. Biochem Insights. 2017.

Fuqua BK, Vulpe CD, Anderson GJ. Intestinal iron absorption. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26(2–3):115–9.

Abbaspour, N.; Hurrell, R.; Kelishadi, R. Review on iron and its importance for human health. J. Res. Med. Sci. 2014; 19: 164–174

Özdemir N. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children. Turk Pediatr Ars. 2015;50(1):11–9.

Ashish KC, Målqvist M, Rana N, Ranneberg LJ, Andersson O. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on anaemia at 8 and 12 months and later neurodevelopment in late pre-term and term infants; a facility-based, randomized-controlled trial in Nepal. BMC Pediatr. 2016;16(1):1–6.

Gupta DCP. Role of Iron (Fe) in Body. IOSR J Appl Chem. 2014;7(11):38–46.

Abu-Ouf, NM, Jan, MM. The impact of maternal iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia on child’s health. Saudi Med J.2015;2:146–149

Alwan N, Hamamy H. Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy and Long-Term Health Outcomes in the Offspring. J Pediatr Genet. 2015;04(02):111–23.

Wang Y, Wu Y, Li T, Wang X, Zhu C. Iron metabolism and brain development in premature infants. Front Physiol. 2019;10

Fretham SJB, Carlson ES, Georgieff MK. The role of iron in learning and memory. Adv Nutr. 2011;2(2):112–21.

Bastian TW, Rao R, Tran P V, Georgieff MK. The Effects of Early-Life Iron Deficiency on Brain Energy Metabolism. Neurosci Insights. 2020;15.

Cheli VT, Santiago González DA, Marziali LN, Zamora NN, Guitart ME, Spreuer V, et al. The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is required for iron uptake and normal development of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. J Neurosci. 2018;38(43):9142–59.

Otero GA, Fernández T, Pliego-Rivero FB, Mendieta GG. Iron therapy substantially restores qEEG maturational lag among iron-deficient anemic infants. Nutr Neurosci. 2019;22(5):363–72.

Deoni S, Dean D, Joelson S, O’Regan J, Schneider N. Early nutrition influences developmental myelination and cognition in infants and young children. Neuroimage. 2018;178:649–59.

Cheatham CL. Nutritional Factors in Fetal and Infant Brain Development. Ann Nutr Metab. 2020;75(l1):20–32.

Jáuregui-Lobera I. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:2087–95.

Lukowski AF, Koss M, Burden MJ, Jonides J, Nelson CA, Kaciroti N, et al. Iron deficiency in infancy and neurocognitive functioning at 19 years: Evidence of long-term deficits in executive function and recognition memory. Nutr Neurosci. 2010;13(2):54–70.

Nnah IC, Wessling-Resnick M. Brain Iron homeostasis: A focus on microglial Iron. Pharmaceuticals. 2018;11(4).

Lozoff B. Early iron deficiency has brain and behavior effects consistent with dopaminergic dysfunction1-3. J Nutr. 2011;141(4).

Algarín C, Nelson CA, Peirano P, Westerlund A, Reyes S, Lozoff B. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and poorer cognitive inhibitory control at age 10 years. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 2013;55:53–458.

Carter RC, Jacobson JL, Burden MJ, Armony-Sivan R, Dodge NC, Angelilli ML, et al. Iron deficiency anemia and cognitive function in infancy. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2).