Vitamin D serum level as a prognostic factor in 1 predicting mortality severe COVID-19 patients: An evidence based case report

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Henny Puspita
Marcia Kumala
Yohannessa Wulandari


Introduction: The mortality rate of COVID-19 is still high. Many prognostic factors have been studied to decrease the mortality rate. One of the many factors is vitamin D status, known for years as an immunomodulator and anti-inflammatory agent. Vitamin D deficiency could worsen the symptoms of COVID-19 and ultimately lead to mortality. However, some literature shows controversial results. 
Methods: Literature research was conducted by advanced searching in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ProQuest, using a combination of both MeSH Terms and Title/Abstract. After removing duplicates, these literature were screened according to the eligibility criteria. Appraisal and level of evidence of the final literature were determined based on Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine.
Results: Two selected literature were relevant to answer our clinical question. The former is a retrospective cohort study by Radujkovic et al. (2020), while the latter is a prospective cohort study by Bennouar et al. (2020). Both show similar results that low vitamin D serum levels in severe COVID-19 patients can increase the in-hospital mortality risk.
Conclusion: Vitamin D is one of the prognostic factors that can predict the mortality rate of severe COVID-19 patients. We suggest that vitamin D serum level can be measured regularly in COVID-19 patients and administered to patients with such deficiencies. Adequate vitamin D deficiency management is expected to lower the COVID-19 mortality rate.


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Author Biographies

Henny Puspita, University of Indonesia, Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine

Yohannessa Wulandari, University of Indonesia, Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine


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